BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnet work broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it. If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another UDP message to query the server.
resource record is an entry in a name server's database. There are several types of resource records used, including name-to-address resolution information. Resource records are maintained as ASCII files.
DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transmission reliability suffers with UDP.
Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world.
The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing. It is an alternative to the Routing Information Protocol.
The three types of routing tables are fixed, dynamic, and fixed central.
A fixed table must be manually modified every time there is a change.
A dynamic table changes its information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual maintenance.
A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. The fixed central table reduces the need to update each machine's table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table causes the fewest problems for a network administrator, although the table's contents can change without the administrator being aware of the change.
It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.
It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers.
It is a simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.
It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router.
It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions.
It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files.
It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a Multihomed Host.
It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session.
It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.
It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol).
It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol.
t is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system.
It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system.
It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.
Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol.
It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time.
When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions.
Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing.
One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping.
Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.
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