Computer Hardware

In this article we would discuss about coding schemes used in computer, definition of computer. Later we would cover measurement unit used in computer storages.

What is a Computer?

  • An electronic machine
    • that can be programmed to
    • accept data (input), and
    • process it into
    • useful information (output).
  • Kept in secondary storage (storage) for safekeeping or later use.
  • The processing of input into output is directed by the software, but performed by the hardware.

 what is computer

Bits & Bytes

Computers are devices powered by electricity, which has two discrete states: On or Off.
Two digits represent these states:

bits and bites

  • To be processed, all data in a computer system (words, symbols, pictures, videos, sounds) must be reduced to a string of binary digits.
  • A binary digit 1 or 0 is called a bit,
  • Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte, which provides enough combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters, including numbers, upper and lower case alphabet letters, punctuation marks and other characters
Name Abb Approx. Bytes Exact Bytes Approx. Pages of Text
Byte B One 1 One character
Kilobyte KB (or K) One thousand 1,024 One-half page
Megabyte MB One million 1,048,576 500 pages
Gigabyte GB One billion 1,073,741,824 500,000 pages
Terabyte TB One trillion 1,099,511,627,776 500,000,000 pages

Coding Schemes

Define the patterns of bytes

Coding schemes, such as ASCII, EBCDIC, and Unicode, provide the means to interact with a computer

When a letter is pressed on a keyboard, the electronic signals are converted into binary form and stored into memory.

The computer processes the data as bytes of information and converts them to the letters we see on the monitor screen or on a printed page.

computer coding


  • Hardware (H/w) All machinery & Equipments Computer & Peripherals
  • Peripherals Any piece of hardware connected to the PC
  • Software (S/w) programs- tells the Computer how to perform a task
    • Systems Software (S/w) For managing internal activities & run applications s/w Interpreter bet S/w & H/w
    • Application Software (S/w) - to perform a specific task Custom or Packaged