Top 100 Networking Interview Questions with Answers

Looking for Networking Interview questions and answers, here is the list of top 100 networking interview questions with detailed answers. These questions and answers will help you to face any networking interview confidently.

Q1:- What is the difference between physical topology and logical topology?

A physical topology describes how computers are physically connected. Whereas a logical topology describes how data is transmitted over a physical topology.

Q2:- What is a cookie?

A cookie is a small piece of information that a website stores on user's browser for various purposes such as tracking, advertising, etc.

Q3:- What is an IP address?

An IP address is a unique identity of an interface on an IP network. An IP address consists of 32 bits. These bits are divided into four equal sections. Sections are separated by periods and written in a sequence.

Q4:- What is the difference between baseband technology and broadband technology?

Baseband technology uses bidirectional digital signals for transmission which means a single channel is used for sending and receiving data singles. Broadband technology uses unidirectional analog signals for transmission which means two separate channels are used for sending and receiving the data.

Q5:- What is a Bandwidth?

A bandwidth is the amount of data that a cable can carry. Bandwidth is computed by subtracting the lower frequency of data signals from the higher one. For a digital signal, it is measured in bps (bits per second) and for an analog signal, it is measured in Hz (Hertz).

Q6:- What is the use of ARP and RARP in a network?

In a LAN network, a node needs two addresses (IP address and MAC address) to communicate with others. When it has only one address and needs the other address, it uses ARP and RARP. It uses ARP when it has an IP address and needs the MAC address of another node. It uses RARP when it has a MAC address and needs the IP address of another node.

Q7:- What is a junk email?

A junk mail is an unsolicited mail. Usually, it contains newsletters or advertising contents and it arrives from an address that is not listed in the address book.

Q8:- What is the auto responder in the email system?

In an email system, the auto responder is a service that automatically sends a prewritten answer email to the sender as soon as it receives the email.

Q9:- What is a packet sniffer?

A packet sniffer is a program or device that captures data packets from the wire.

Q10:-What is Telnet?

Telnet is a service that allows a user to remotely access the system or device on which it is running.

Q11:- In the OSI model, what is Encapsulation?

Encapsulation is the process of preparing data for transmission. In this process, first, the data is encrypted and compressed. Later the data is packaged through the layers. Each layer adds its individual information in the header. In transmission, this information is read and used by various devices and protocols to deliver the package to the correct destination.

Q12:- In the OSI model, what is Decapsulation?

Decapsulation is the process of extracting original data from an encoded data package. When a data package is received from the network, it is wrapped in several headers. In this process, these headers are removed. Once headers are removed, package data is decrypted and decompressed.

Q13:- What is ANSI?

ANSI stands for American National Standards Institute. It is an organization that officially defines standards in America. The official website of ANSI is www.ansi.org.

Q14:- Which layers in the OSI model are known as lower layers?

Application, Data Link, and Network layers are known as lower layers.

Q15:- Which are the upper layers in the OSI model?

The upper layers in the OSI model are Application, Presentation, Session, and Transport.

Q33:- What do the extensions .com, .net, .org, .info, .biz, and .in stand for?

The extensions .com, .net, .org, .info, .biz and .in stand for commercial, network, organization, information, business and India respectively.

Q34:- What is a MAC address?

A MAC address is the physical address of a NIC. It is 48 bits in length. It is written in Hexadecimal format. Usually, it is stored in the ROM of a NIC.

Q18:- What does a router use to determine the best path to a destination?

A router uses the routing table to determine the best path to the destination.

Q19:- What is used on the Internet to find the numeric address of a computer host that resides on the Internet?

DNS server

Q20:- What is a daemon?

A daemon is an application or a process that runs on a server to provide client and server access and communication.

Q21:- What functionality can be used to disguise addresses from a private address space to be seen on the Internet?

NAT (Network Address Translation)

Q22:- Which protocol is used to resolve IP addresses to hardware addresses?

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

Q23:- What is a proprietary standard?

A proprietary standard is a standard that is developed and owned by a specific vendor.

Q24:- What is a de-facto standard?

A de-facto standard is a standard that began as a proprietary standard and then grew to a standard that is used by pretty much everyone.

Q25:- What is the maximum rate of the collision in a healthy Ethernet LAN?

The collision rate should not be more than 30% in a healthy Ethernet.

Q26:- When a broadcast is made on the Ethernet LAN, which devices examine it?

A broadcast message is examined by all devices on the network.

Q27:- Is the broadcast message intended for a specific device on the network?

No, a broadcast message is intended for all devices on the network.

Q28:- What does OSI stand for?

OSI stands for Open System Interconnection.

Q29:- What does FTP stand for?

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol.

Q30:- What does DHCP stand for?

DHCP stands for Dynamic host configuration protocol.

Q31:- What is a router?

A router is a device that is used to connect two different networks.

Q32:- What is an MAU?

An MAU (Multi-station Access Unit) is a topology-specific Hub. In the term of functionalities and characteristics, it works the same as Hub. But it is only used in the token ring.

Q33:- Which is the bottom layer of the OSI model?

The physical layer is the bottom layer of the OSI model.

Q34:- Which is the top layer of the OSI model?

The application layer is the top layer of the OSI model.

Q35:- What does the term driver refer to?

A driver is software that contains technical information about a specific device. This information includes what that specific device is, how it works on the system and what it needs to communicate and coexist with other devices.

Q36:- Are 10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet architectures used on a modern network?

No, both architectures are used in bus topology which is no longer used to build the networks.

Q37:- In which topology 10BaseT architecture is used?

10BaseT architecture is used in start topology. It provides a maximum of 10 Mbps speed. It uses Baseband transmission technology and UTP (CAT-3) cable.

Q38:- In a bus topology network, to remove a workstation from the network, the T connector is removed from the NIC. Will this network work normally?

Yes, this network will work normally because removing the T connector does not interrupt the signal flow on the main cable.

Q39:- What is a drop cable?

A drop cable is a cable that connects a workstation with a backbone cable in bus topology.

Q40:- What is the maximum length of Thicknet coaxial cable?

The maximum length of Thicknet coaxial cable is 500 meters.

Q41:- Which cable is known as the RG58 cable?

The Thinnet cable is known as the RG58 cable.

Q42:- Why coaxial cable is no longer used in computer networks?

Coaxial cable is used in bus topology. Since bus topology is no longer used in computer networks, coaxial cable is also not used in modern networks.

Q43:- What is the maximum distance of UTP cable?

The maximum distance of UTP cable is 100 meters.

Q44:- Which connector is used to connect UTP cable with NIC?

A RJ45 connector is used to connect the UTP cable with NIC.

Q45:- Which cable uses an RJ11 connector?

The telephone cable uses an RJ11 connector.

Q46:- Can we use Cateogry1 (UTP) cable for data transmission?

No, we can't use Cateogry1 (UTP) cable for data transmission. It is used in telephone networks for voice transmission.

Q47:- Which port does the PING use?

The PING does not use any port. Any application, which operates in layer 4, needs a port. Since PING is a layer 3 network management tool, it does not require any port to operate.

Q48:- Which topology uses a centralized device for connectivity?

Star topology uses a centralized device (HUB or Switch) for connectivity.

Q49:- Which topology uses coaxial cable and terminators?

Bus topology uses coaxial cable and terminators.

Q50:- What is the daisy-chaining technique and which topology uses this technique?

Star topology uses the daisy-chaining technique to extend the network. In this technique, a hub or switch is connected to another hub or switch as the node of the existing topology. Then that hub or switch is used to connect the more devices in the network.

Q51:- What is the signal bouncing issue and how it can be solved?

A signal bouncing issue occurs in bus topology. Bus topology uses a coaxial cable to connect the computers. In this topology when a computer sends a signal, the signal travels in both directions from the sending computer. When this signal reaches the end of the cable, it bounces back and returns in the original direction. This is known as a signal bouncing issue. To solve this issue, terminators are used on both ends of the cable. A terminator absorbs the signals when they reach it. This resolves the signal bouncing issue.

Q52:- What is the backbone network?

The network which connects two or more networks is considered a backbone network. Usually, the backbone network contains high-speed data transferring devices such as routers and switches. Backbone networks should never be used for end-user connectivity. The network which provides end-user connectivity should be connected through the backbone network.

Q53:- What is the PAN network and how it is different from the LAN network?

A PAN network is the shorter version of a LAN network. Unlike LAN networks which are mainly built for a group of users, PAN networks are built for individual users. Usually, a PAN network is built to connect multiple personal devices such as smartphones, PDAs, laptops, and computers for data sharing.

Q53:- A company has offices in Jaipur and Delhi. What type of computer network it will use to connect these offices?

WAN (Wide Area Network) network is used to connect the networks which are spread over different geographical locations.

Q54:- What is the intranet?

The term intranet refers to an IP-based network that is administered and controlled by a single entity. In this type of network, only authorized users are allowed to access the network resources.

Q55:- A company does not have sufficient budget for lease line connection. Which cost-effective alternate will you suggest for the company?

VPN (Virtual Private Network) is the cost-effective alternative for a leased line.

Q56:- A company wants to extend its intranet network to certain business partners. What type of the network it has to build?

Extranet, when we extend the intranet to external parties, we create an Extranet.

Q57:- How many wires does UTP cable contain?

UTP cable contains four pairs of wires. Each pair has two wires which are twisted with each other. This way, there is a total of eight wires in a UTP cable.

Q58:- in a UTP cable, how many wires are used for data transmission?

In a UTP cable, from eight wires, only four wires are used for data transmission.

Q59:- in a UTP cable, which wires are used for data transmission?

In a UTP cable, wires 1, 2, 3, and 6 are used for data transmission. Wire 1 and 2 are used to transmit the data while wires 3 and 6 are used to receive the data.

Q60:- What is the maximum data transmission speed of Category 5 UTP cable, Category 5e UTP cable, and Category 6 UTP cable?

The maximum transmission speed of Category 5 UTP cable, Category 5e UTP cable, and Category 6 UTP cable is 100Mbps, 1000Mbps, and 10Gbps, respectively.

Q61:- There are two pairs of cables; RG58 & RG8 and RG59 & RG6. From these, which pair is used in computer networks, and where the remaining is used?

RG58 and RG8 cables are used in computer networks while RG59 and RG6 cables are used in TV cable networks.

Q62:- Can we use RG59 and RG6 cables in computer networks?

No, these cables can't be used in computer networks. These cables are built for cable TV networks.

Q63:- Are coaxial cables still used in computer networks?

No, coaxial cables are no longer used in the computer network.

Q64:- What is the maximum data transmission speed of Category 2 UTP cable, Category 3 UTP cable, and Category 4 UTP cable?

The maximum transmission speed of Category 2 UTP cable, Category 3 UTP cable, and Category 4 UTP cable is 4 Mbps, 10 Mbps, and 16 Mbps, respectively.

Q65:- What is 802.3 and what does it define?

IEEE 802.3 is a collection of IEEE standards. It defines standards for the Physical layer including access methods used in the Data Link Layer.

Q66:- What is the 5-4-3 rule and in which architecture it is used?

The 5-4-3 rule is used in 10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet architectures. In this rule, there can be a maximum of five segments in a network, connected with four repeaters. From these five segments, only three segments can be populated with nodes.

Q67:- What does 10Base2 stand for?

In a 10Base2 architecture, 10 stands for speed, Base stands for Baseband transmission, and 2 stands for 200 meters (Maximum distance it can span).

Q68:- What are the differences between a TCP port and a physical port?

A TCP port is a logical number. The transport layer uses it for the connection multiplexing. In connection multiplexing, a local process is mapped with a remote node by using the port numbers.

A physical port is the connection point of a node. External device or cable connects with the node on this port.

Q68:- Why the IP protocol is considered a connectionless protocol?

The IP protocol is considered a connectionless protocol because it does not establish a connection before sending data to the endpoint.

Q69:- What is a Link?

A Link is a physical or logical connection between two nodes on the network.

Q70:- What is a Node?

In a network, any device or system that has a NIC and uses an IP address to communicate with others NICs is considered as a node.

Q71:- List any five applications which use TCP port.

Telnet, FTP, SSH, SMTP, and POP.

Q72:- What are the 2 sub-layers of the Data Link layer?

Logical Link Control (LLC) and Media Access Control (MAC).

Q73:- What technology can be used to create a point-to-point network connection over the Internet?

VPN (a virtual private network).

Q74:- What does NIC stand for?

The NIC stands for the network interface controller.

Q75:- In which layers of the OSI model, does a NIC operate?

NIC operates in layer1 and layer2 of the OSI model.

Q76:- Which Ethernet architectures use a BNC connector?

10Base2 and 10Base5 Ethernet architectures use BNC connectors.

Q77:- Which access method is used in the 1000BaseTX network?

The CSMA/CD access method is used in the 1000BaseTX network.

Q78:- How many network segments can be populated in 10Base2?

Maximum three network segments can be populated in 10Base2.

Q79:- Which cable is used in the 10BaseFL network?

The Fiber optical cable is used in the 10BaseFL network.

Q80:- What is the maximum length of a ThinNet cable?

The maximum length of a ThinNet cable is 185 meters.

Q81:- Which cable is known as the RG8 cable?

The Thicknet cable is known as the RG8 cable.

Q82:- Which cable is used as the backbone cable in bus topology?

The Thicknet (RG8) cable is used as the backbone cable in bus topology.

Q83:- What does ISO stand for?

ISO stands for International Organization for Standardization.

Q84:- What does OSI stand for?

OSI stands for Open System Interconnection.

Q85:- What is the OSI layer model?

OSI Layer model is a logical structure that defines the process of data transmission from one computer to another computer.

Q86:- How many layers are there in the OSI model?

There are seven distinct layers in the OSI model. The names of these layers are Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.

Q87:- What is a unicast message?

A unicast message is a message that is sent to a specific address and intended for a specific node in the network.

Q88:- What is a multicast message?

A multicast message is a message that is sent on a multicast address and intended for a group of nodes on the network.

Q89:- What is a broadcast message?

A broadcast message is a message that is sent to a broadcast address and intended for all nodes of the network.

Q90:- What does the standard IEEE802.3ab define?

The IEEE802.3ab standard defines 1000BaseTX Ethernet implementation. 1000BaseTX uses UTP (CAT 5e or CAT6) cable. It provides a speed of 1000Mbps. It supports a maximum distance of 100 meters.

Q91:- What is a Mail Gateway?

It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.

Q92:- Which network does VPN uses for data transportation?

VPN uses a public network such as the Internet for data transportation.

Q93:- What is the use of tunneling protocols in VPN?

In VPN, tunneling protocols are used for data encryption and decryption.

Q94:- How many classes are there in IPv4?

In IPv4, there are five classes

Q95:- What is the range of each class in IPv4?

Class Starting address Ending address
A 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255
B 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255
C 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255
D 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255
E 240.0.0.0 255.255.255.255

Q96:- What does the term Pipelining describe?

The term Pipelining describes the sequencing of processes. When an additional task is started before the ongoing task is finished, it is known as sequencing.

Q97:- What is the difference between Baseband and Broadband transmission?

In Baseband transmission, only one signal is allowed to transmit at a time. While in Broadband transmission, multiple signals are allowed to transmit simultaneously.

Q98:- What does the SLIP stand for?

The SLIP stands for Serial Line Interface Protocol. It is used in WAN technology for transmitting IP datagrams over a serial line.

Q99:- Which measurement unit is used to measure the transmission speed of Ethernet?

The transmission speed of Ethernet is measured in Mbps (millions of bits per second).

Q100:- What are the key elements of a protocol?

A protocol is a set of rules which is used to govern all the aspects of information communication. There are three key elements in a protocol: Syntax, Semantics, and Timing. Syntax defines the format in which data is displayed. Semantics describes the data bits of each section. Timing controls what time and how fast data is transmitted.

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