Home

Grep Command in Linux Explained with Practical Examples

This tutorial explains how to use grep command step by step with examples including how regular expressions are used with grep command for pattern ...

How to manage disk quota in Linux step by step

This tutorial explains how to configure and manage disk quota in Linux step by step with examples including basic concepts of disk quota such as har...

Vi and Vim Editor Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains vi and vim editor in easy language with examples including difference between vi and vim, advantage of vim over vi and vi ed...

How to Configure RAID in Linux Step by Step Guide

This tutorial explains basic concepts of RAID in detail with examples including how to configure and manage software RAID in Linux step by step. ...

Learn How to Configure LVM in Linux step by step

This tutorial explains basic concepts of LVM in detail with examples including how to configure and manage LVM in Linux step by step. Basic conc...

How to create swap partition in Linux

This tutorial explains how to create swap partition in Linux with examples including basic swap management tasks such as how to increase, mount or c...

Linux Disk Management with parted command

This tutorial explains how to create primary, extended, logical and GPT partitions from parted command in Linux step by step with examples. For ...

Manage Linux Disk Partition with gdisk Command

This tutorial explains how to create GPT (GUID partition table) partitions from gdisk command in Linux step by step with examples. For this tuto...

Manage Linux Disk Partition with fdisk Command

This tutorial explains how to create primary, extended and logical partitions from fdisk command in Linux step by step with examples. For this t...

Linux Disk Management Tutorial

This tutorial explains basic concepts of Linux disk management including BIOS, UEFI, MBR, GPT, SWAP, LVM, RAID, primary partition, extended partitio...

Configure PAT in Cisco Router with Examples

This tutorial explains how to configure PAT (Port Address Translation) also known NAT Overload in Cisco Router step by step with Packet Tracer examp...

How to Configure Dynamic NAT in Cisco Router

This tutorial explains how to configure dynamic NAT (Network Address Translation) in Cisco Router step by step with Packet Tracer examples. For ...

How to Configure Static NAT in Cisco Router

This tutorial explains how to configure static NAT (Network Address Translation) in Cisco Router step by step with Packet Tracer examples. In or...

Basic Concepts of NAT Explained in Easy Language

This tutorial explains basic concepts of static NAT, dynamic NAT, PAT, inside local, outside local, inside global and outside global in detail with ...

Networking Questions and Answers

This article provides computer networking questions and answers based on networking cable, network topology, Ethernet architecture and IEEE standard...

Basic Networking Interview Questions with Answer

This tutorial provides basic networking interview questions with answers from following categories; basic networking, networking topology and networ...

RPM Command in Linux Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains RPM Command in Linux with examples including rpm file naming convention and how to build a basic RPM package step by step. ...

How to Configure YUM Repository in RHEL Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure Yum with local repository in RHEL/Centos Linux including some important Yum commands which are used for Lin...

Troubleshooting SELinux explained with Booleans

This tutorial explains SELinux Booleans in detail with examples including how to view SELinux logs and troubleshoot SELinux policy violation issues....

SELinux Explained with Examples in Easy Language

This tutorial explains SELinux in detail with examples including SELinux modes, SELinux file context, SELinux policy and how to run web server with ...

Firewalld Rich Rules Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains Firewalld Rich Rules in detail with examples including how rich rules are used to configure the firewall in Linux. Thi...

How to Configure Firewalld in Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure firewall in Linux step by step with examples including firewall-cmd command and its options for zones, serv...

Firewalld Basic concepts Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains basic concepts of firewalld service such as zones, services, ports and rich language including how to disable iptables servic...

How to Configure iptables Firewall in Linux

This tutorial explains how to install, enable and configure iptables firewall in RedHat/ Centos Linux 7.0 step by step with examples. To deal wi...

How to configure Telnet Sever and Client in Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure Telnet Server and client in RedHat Linux / Centos step by step with examples including installation and fire...

How to configure IP address in Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure IP address in Linux from ip addr command, nmcli command, nmtui text tool and from nm-connection editor in de...

RHCSA and RHCE Practice LAB Setup

This tutorial explains how to setup RHCSA / RHCE Practice LAB in detail including essential configurations such as hostname and IP configuration. ...

RHEL 7 LAB Setup for RHCE Practice

This article explains how to setup RHCE practice LAB in VMWare workstation and in Virtual box including physical computers step by step with screens...

Linux System Administration Commands Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains basic Linux system administration commands in details with examples. How to list currently logged in users When a user l...

Linux File System Explained with Shell and Kernel

This Tutorial explains Linux File System in detail with examples including how to view current shell, how to change shell in Linux and how to view k...

Basic Linux Commands Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains basic Linux commands in details with examples including absolute path, relative path and file navigation. Absolute path a...

Linux command syntax explained with IO redirection and Pipes

This tutorial explains Linux command syntax including I/O (Input/Output) redirection, STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR, File descriptor and piping in detail w...

RHCSA Exam Objectives and RHCE Exam Objectives

This article provides RHCSA and RHCE Exam objectives including RHCSA, RHCE exam information. RHCSA ( Red Hat Certified System Administrator ) an...

Linux Virtual Console Explained with Terminal and Shell

This tutorial explains Linux virtual console, shell command prompt, bash shell, internal commands and external commands in detail with example. ...

RHEL 7 Installation Step by Step Explained with Screenshots

This tutorial provides step by step guide on how to install RHEL 7. Each step is explained in detail with screenshot. This tutorial explains RHE...

Computer Networking Devices Explained with Function

This tutorial explains common computer networking devices such as HUB, Switch, Router, Bridge, Brouter, NIC, Proxy and Gateway including their func...

OSI Model Advantages and Basic Purpose Explained

In this tutorial I will provide a brief introduction of OSI Layer model including its advantage and services. When we talk about OSI Layers mode...

How to configure Frame Relay Step by Step Guide

This tutorial explains How to configure Frame Relay step by step in Cisco Routers, How to configure LMI option and DLCI number in Frame Relay, How t...

Basic Concepts of Frame Relay Explained in Easy Language

This tutorial explains basic concept of Frame Relay such as VC, PVC, SVC, DTE, DCE, access link, LMI types, DLCI numbers, FECN, BECN, access rate an...

PPP Protocol and Encapsulation method Explained

This tutorial explains basic concepts of PPP, PPP encapsulation, PPP authentication PAP, PPP authentication CHAP and how to configure PPP protocol o...

HDLC Protocol and Encapsulation method Explained

This tutorial explains basic concepts of HDLC protocol, differences between ISO HDLC and Cisco HDLC, HDLC encapsulation and how to configure HDLC st...

WAN Tutorial – Basic WAN Switching Concept Explained

This tutorial explains basic concepts of WAN such WAN connection types, differences between Asynchronous and Synchronous serial connection, WAN prot...

Configure Extended Access Control List Step by Step Guide

This tutorial explains how to create Extended Access List, how to enable extended ACL in interface, how to edit extended ACL, how to delete extended...

Configure Standard Access Control List Step by Step Guide

This tutorial explains how to create standard numbered ACL, how to calculate and use wildcard mask, how to create standard named ACL, difference bet...

Extended ACL Configuration Commands Explained

This tutorial explains Extended Access List configuration commands and its parameters in detail with examples including how to enable extended ACL i...

Standard ACL Configuration Commands Explained

This tutorial explains Access-list command, IP Access-list command, how to create numbered Standard access list and how to create named standard acc...

Access Control List Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains Cisco Access Control Lists in detail with examples including ACL types, ACL direction and ACL location. Cisco Access Con...

Network Security Threat and Solutions

This tutorial explains common network security threats with their possible solutions in detail with examples. Knowing these vulnerabilities wi...

OSPF Metric cost Calculation Formula Explained

OSPF uses SPF (Shortest Path First) algorithm to select the best route for routing table. SPF algorithm was invented in 1956 by Edsger W. Dijkstra. ...

OSPF Configuration Step by Step Guide

In this tutorial we will provide a step by step configuration guide for OSPF routing protocol. OSPF uses the concept of process ID, area number ...

OSPF Neighbor States Explained with Example

OSPF routers go through the seven states, called Down, Attempt/Init, Two ways, Exstart, Exchange, Loading and full while building adjacency with ...

OSPF Neighborship Condition and Requirement

This tutorial explains OSPF Neighborship Requirements Area ID, Authentication, Hello and Dead intervals, Stub Flag and MTU size in detail with examp...

OSPF Fundamental Terminology Explained

This tutorial explains basic concepts of OSPF including public AS number, private AS number, backbone area, ABR, IP, Link, state, LSA and LSDB in de...

EIGRP Configuration Step by Step Guide

In this tutorial we will provide a step by step configuration guide for EIGRP routing protocol. EIGRP uses the concept of AS and Wildcard mask which...

EIGRP Metric K Values Explained with Examples

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol uses composite metric calculation formula to select the best available route for destination. This formu...

EIGRP Neighborship Requirements and Conditions

In order to become an EIGRP neighbor, three essential configuration values must be matched; Active hello packets, AS number and K-values. In this...

EIGRP Tutorial – Basic concept explained

EIGRP stands for Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol. It is a Cisco-proprietary routing protocol for TCP/IP. It is based on IGRP routing p...

RIP Protocol configuration Guide with Examples

This tutorial explains how to configure RIP routing protocol step by step in detail with example. RIP is the simplest and one of the oldest Dis...

RIP - Routing Information Protocol Explained

Tutorial explains RIP routing fundamentals with examples such as routing metric, rip timers, split horizon rules, hold down timers and difference b...

RIP Tutorial – Basic operation of RIP Protocol

This tutorial explains basic concept of RIP protocol including the process it uses to share routing information with others in detail with examples...

Static Routing Configuration Guide with Examples

This tutorial explains how to configure static route and default route including static route command and it’s parameter in detail with examples....

IP Route command Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains IP route command and its parameters in details with example. IP route command is used to configure the static route. Stat...

Basic Routing concepts and protocols Explained

This tutorial explains static and dynamic routing, Administrative distance, Autonomous System, Routing update, Routing Metric and Routing protocols ...

Configure Cisco Router Step by Step Guide

This tutorial explains how to configure Cisco router step by step. Cisco router configuration commands are explained in packet tracer. Cisco rou...

Cisco Router Show Command Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains Cisco router show commands in detail with example. Show command is the most powerful command in Cisco IOS. It lists run...

Basic of IP Routing Explained with Example

This tutorial explains basic IP routing process step by step with examples. When we talk about routing protocol, first thing that comes in our ...

VLAN Configuration Commands Step by Step Explained

This tutorial explains how to create VLAN, how to assign VLAN Membership static and dynamic, how to configure router on stick and how to configure V...

Dynamic Trunking Protocol Mode and Configuration

This tutorial explains DTP mode (ON, OFF, Auto, desirable and No –negotiate), DTP configuration in Cisco switches, VLAN tagging process, Switch p...

Configure VTP Server and Client in Switch

This tutorial explains how to configure VTP Server and Client in Cisco switches including basic concepts of VTP and VTP modes (Server, Transparent a...

VLAN Practice Lab Setup on Packet Tracer

This tutorial provides a practice LAB for VLAN, VTP, DTP, and Router on Stick in packet tracer. Same lab can be used for the practice of VTP Ser...

VLAN Basic Concepts Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains VLAN basic concepts such as what is VLAN, advantage of VLAN, VLAN membership static and dynamic, VLAN connections and trunk t...

Switchport Port Security Explained With Examples

This tutorial explains switch port security configuration commands, port security violation mode, sticky mac address configuration and how to enabl...

Basic Switch Configuration Guide with Examples

This tutorial explains Cisco switch configuration commands in detail with example in Packet Tracer. These commands are highly tested in CCNA exam an...

STP - Spanning Tree Protocol Explained With Examples

This tutorial explains Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), Broadcast storm, unstable MAC table, Layer 2 loop, STP Port Status and STP root bridge selectio...

Switching Methods and Types Explained in Computer Networks

This tutorial explains basic concepts of switching including how a switch learn MAC address, type of switching and method of switching in detail wit...

CCNA Lab Switch 2960

In this article we will explore the 2960 Switch in details including features, hardware, available versions and functionality. 2960 Series Switc...

CCNA Lab Equipment List

This article introduces you to Cisco equipment used in CCNA exam. Although CCNA exam does not test your product specific knowledge, still you need...

How to Configure SDM Security Device Manager

This tutorial provides step by step guide to install and configure SDM - Cisco Security Device Manager. Security Device Manager (SDM) is a web ...

Cisco IOS Backup and Restore Process Step By Step Guide

This tutorial explains Cisco IOS backup and restore process step by step including how to upgrade Cisco IOS and how to restore IOS from ROMMON m...

Cisco IOS Context Sensitive Help Features Explained

This tutorial explains Cisco IOS help commands in detail with examples including context sensitive help feature. Cisco IOS has several built in ...

CDP Cisco Discovery Protocol Guide with Examples

This article explains CDP (Cisco Discovery Protocol) in detail with examples.CDP ( Cisco Discovery Protocol) is a proprietary protocol designed by...

Cisco Router Booting Process Explained with Examples

In this tutorial I will explain router booting process with example. Router follows a boot sequence to bring it up. Knowing this sequence will help ...

Cisco IOS Mode Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains Cisco IOS modes in detail with examples including IOS mode navigation commands. Cisco IOS is the proprietary operating sy...

Interface Nomenclature Guide of Router and Switch

This tutorial explains the naming convention used in Cisco router and switch for interfaces in details with example. Cisco makes a l...

Cisco IOS Naming Convention Explained with Examples

Cisco IOS is a proprietary operating system developed by Cisco System for Cisco devices. It includes all necessary features required by routers ...

Cabling Cisco Devices Guide

This tutorial explains color coding standards for cross cable and straight cable including general guideline for cabling Cisco devices. Withou...

VLSM Tutorial with Examples

This tutorial explains VLSM Subnetting in detail with examples in easy language. VLSM is a process of dividing an IP network into the subnets of...

Basic of Network Addressing

This tutorial explains basic concepts of network addressing including a brief overview of subnet, flat topology, IP address, Subnetting, Supe...

Subnetting Tutorial - Subnetting Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains Subnetting in easy language with examples. This tutorial is divided in three sections. First section provides a basic ove...

OSI Seven Layers Model Explained with Examples

This tutorial explains OSI Reference Model in detail with examples including its protocols and functions in easy language. Layers model is a the...

Internetworking in Computer Network

This tutorial explains internetworking in computer network with examples including networking devices and basic networking concepts such as CSMA/CD...

Configure Gmail account in Outlook Express

Gmail is the most widely used Email service. At the time of writing this tutorial Gmail has 400 million active users worldwide. In this tutorial we...

Troubleshooting Windows XP Workgroup

Troubleshooting a network issue was never an easy task. It requires technical skills and diagnostic approach. In this article we will explain most ...

How to configure CCProxy Server

In this tutorial we will explain how to configure a proxy server. Proxy server is used to share controlled internet in the network. Proxy serv...

Remote Assistance in Window XP Explained with Example

This tutorial explains how to configure Remote Assistance in Windows XP with examples. No one is geek in the computer world. Everyone needs hel...

How to setup Remote Desktop in Windows XP

In this tutorial we will setup remote desktop in windows XP. With remote desktop we can connect to a computer running windows XP from another co...

How to configure NetMeeting in Windows XP

In this tutorial we will configure NetMeeting in Windows XP workgroup network. NetMeeting is the popular communication software for windows user...

How to share Internet in Windows XP

This tutorial provides a step by step guide of internet sharing in windows XP workgroup network. Instead of buying an individual internet connec...

How to Share Printer in Windows XP

Windows XP has an inbuilt setup wizard for printer sharing. Either we can use this setup wizard for easy and hassle free sharing or we can use manu...

How to Share Files and Folders in Windows XP

Sharing files and folders in Windows XP is much easier than the earlier version of windows. Windows XP allows us to share a folder with two differe...

Vista XP Workgroup Setup

Windows Vista has several improvements in networking. It has a new network discovery service that automatically discover supporting network. In this...

How to setup a Workgroup in Windows XP

Sharing was a tough task before Windows XP. Windows XP includes several features that make sharing easier. Among these features, workgroup feature ...

Windows XP Workgroup Settings

Workgroup is a group of computers those are setup for easy sharing. Windows XP supports workgroup networking. We need to adjust some settings befor...

How to Share Printer in Windows 7

This tutorial presents a step by step guide of sharing printer in windows 7 network. Printer is an essential device for home and office network...

How to share Internet in Windows 7

In this tutorial we will present a step by step guide of internet sharing in windows 7 homegroup network. Sharing allows us to use a single inte...

HomeGroup Sharing

HomeGroup sharing is the easiest way of sharing resources across the network. We can share files, folder, Internet, printer, hard disk, media, vide...

How to Leave HomeGroup in Windows 7

Homegroup is a group of computers those are agreed to share resource between them. Members are free to leave this group any time. They do not requir...

How to Join HomeGroup in Windows 7

Homegroup is the easiest way of file sharing between Windows 7 systems. We need a homegroup password to join the existing homegroup. We can obtain t...

How to Change HomeGroup Password

Homegroup password is automatically generated during the creation process of homegroup. Windows uses random letters, numbers and symbols to generate...

How to Find HomeGroup Password

Homegroup is a membership based group. All members require a homegroup password to join it. Homegroup password is automatically generated during the...

How to Setup Network Homegroup in Windows 7

Network and sharing center is used to manage the networking resources such as adapter settings, IP configurations, domain settings, homegroup settin...

How to Setup Homegroup in Windows 7

For easy administration Windows system keeps links of all important services in control panel. We can use these links to manage the related services...

How to Setup a Windows 7 HomeGroup

Intentionally or accidentally if you have skipped the auto initiated homegroup setup wizard and looking for an alternative method then this is th...

How to Create Homegroup in Windows 7

When a Windows 7 system first time connects with internet or network, it automatically pops up the network location wizard. This wizard prompts user...

Windows 7 Homegroup Explained

Each new version of Windows makes networking easier. Windows 7 has followed the same footprint of ongoing improvement track by introducing a new fea...

What is HomeGroup

Sharing service was included in windows system from its earlier version. But discovering and using it was a tough task for average users. This situa...

Differences between Workgroup and Homegroup

Workgroup and Homegroup both terms are used to define a group of computers those are set to share the resources. Both terms are used synonymously i...

What is Networking

Networking is a process of connecting two or more computers for sharing. Through the networking, computers share information such as email, file, do...

Initial Configuration Tasks

From windows Server 2008 setup process reserves configuration steps for the post-installation process. These pre-deployment options are left for the...

How to Reset Window 7 Administrator password

In this tutorial we will reset the administrator account password in window 7. With this method you can reset any users password in window 7. Windo...

How to create partition in Window 7

Sometime you may create single partition during the installation of Window 7 leaving the remaining space of hard disk for further use. Or sometime ...

USB data recovery

USB flash drive is one of the most widely used device. USB flash drives are typically removable and rewritable, and physically much smaller than ...

Interview Questions For Linux Technician

This article provides most frequently asked interview questions with answers for Linux Technician. You are tasked to build a new Linux workstati...

Linux Technical Interview Questions

This article provides Linux technical interview questions with answers. Due to power fluctuation, your system starts up from a powered off stat...

Linux Interview Questions For Experienced

This article provides Linux interview questions with answers for experienced users. Why should you periodically update the kernel and package ve...

Interview Questions Linux

This article provides basic Linux interview questions with answers. What command do you use to format a partition with a file system? You could...

Linux Interview Questions with Answer

This article provides Linux interview questions with answers. Which file have runlevel configuration? /ect/inittab What command would you use ...

Linux Interview Questions Answers

This article presents a basic collection of Linux interview questions with answers. What is Kerberos used for? Kerberos is used for secure netw...

Basic Linux interview questions for Freshers

This article presents a basic Linux interview questions with answers for fresher. What Squid service do? Squid provides the Proxy service, whi...

Linux system admin interview questions

This article presents a basic Linux system admin interview questions with answers for beginners. What is the Minix? Minix is the UNIX clone wr...

RHCE Interview Questions and Answers

This article presents basic interview questions with answers for RHCE candidates. Which version of RHEL officially supports LUKS encryption? ...

How to configure apache server in linux

This article explains how to configure Apache Web Server in Linux step by step with examples. Apache is the most popular, secure, robust, re...

How to configure NFS Server in RHEL 6

This tutorial explains how to configure NFS (Network File System) in Linux step by step with examples. Network File System (NFS) protocol allow ...

How to configure Samba on RHEL 6

This tutorial explains how to configure SAMBA Server in Linux step by step with examples. Microsoft window use Common Internet File System (CI...

sample network administrator resume 1

In this article we have prepared sample resume for an experienced network administrator who has CCNA certification with basic diploma. ...

How to configure FTP server in RHEL6

This tutorial explains how to configure FTP Server in Linux step by step with examples. In this tutorial I will configure FTP Server on RHEL6. F...

How to configure SSH Server in RHEL 6

This tutorial explains how to configure SSH Server and SSH client in Linux step by step with examples. RHCE Exam objective covered in this tuto...

How to configure Telnet Server in RHEL6

This tutorial explains how to configure Telnet Sever in Redhat Linux 6 including how to enable login for root user account in telnet service. T...

Network Configuration Files

Linux manages services through the configuration files. This tutorial explains configuration files which are used to manage network in detail. ...

How to assign IP address in Linux

This tutorial explains how to configure IP address in Linux step by step with examples. This tutorial is prepared for Centos / RHEL 6 or lower v...

Networking tools

This tutorial explains basic network configuration commands in Linux with examples. In Linux several networking tools are available to manage t...

How to get help for commands

You can use command help options to get more details. During the RHCE exam no internet access is available. But you can use local resources avail...

how to find difference between two files in linux

diff command find the difference between files. In this article we would see how diff command can help us in RHCE exam. Everything in Linux is m...

How to find files in linux

In Linux world everything is file. Linux system is managed through the several configuration files. Most of configuration files have associated d...

sort command in linux

sort command allow you to sort the content of file. With sort command you can sort the contents in several ways. By default, the sort command sor...

tar command

tar command is used to create archive in Linux. In this article we would cover following topics What is tar tar file Syntax of tar command ...

Linux alias command

In this article we would use alias command. Default aliases provide safety features. For a Linux system administrator it is a handy tool. How to...

Linux Environment Variables

In this article we would understand linux environment variables. Environmental variable plays significant role in linux system. We would cover f...

How to install flash player on Ubuntu

In this article we would install adobe flash player in Ubuntu. Flash player is the must have plugin for web browser. Flash player can be install...

Komodo as default file editor in FileZilla

In this article we would set komodo as default program for FileZilla. Komodo is the powerful editor for programming language. In our previous art...

Komodo as default program for php file in Ubuntu

In this article we would set komodo as default program for php file. Komodo is the powerful editor for programming language. In our previous arti...

How to install komodo in Ubuntu

In this article we will install Komodo Edit in Ubuntu. Komodo edit is developed by ActiveState. ActiveState release two version of Komodo. Kom...

How to install gnome classic in Ubuntu

In this article we will install Gnome classic in Ubuntu. Ubuntu 12.04 uses unity as default desktop. Unity is only the desktop environment availa...

How to install FileZilla in Ubuntu

In this article we will install Filezilla in Ubuntu. Filezilla is the popular ftp client. Best things about Filezilla are its free, open source p...

How to run chrome as root user in Ubuntu

By default google-chrome will run as under the normal user. You would get following error if you run chrome as root user Google Chrome can not...

How to install chrome manually in Ubuntu

In this article we will install chrome in Ubuntu. Chrome is the powerful web browser. We can install chrome form Ubuntu software center or manua...

How to install chrome in Ubuntu

In this article we will install chrome in Ubuntu. Chrome is the powerful web browser. We can install chrome form Ubuntu software center or manua...

How to enable sound in Ubuntu 12.04

In this article we will enable sound for root user in Ubuntu. Sound service does not start when you logged in from root user. We need to add so...

How to install 7zip in Ubuntu

In this article we will install 7zip in Ubuntu. 7zip is the most popular compress and uncompress utility. 7zip can compress in following format:...

How to fix permission of htdocs in Ubuntu

In this article we would set the permission of htdocs folder. htdocs folder contains the web contents. In our previous articles we have installe...

How to start XAMPP automatically in Ubuntu

In this article we would make a script to start XAMPP automatically in Ubuntu. In last article we installed XAMPP in Ubuntu. But we need to exec...

How to install XAMPP 1.8.2 in Ubuntu

In this tutorial we would install XAMPP 1.8.2 in Ubuntu. XAMPP stand for X (to be read as "cross", meaning cross-platform) Apache HTTP Server...

How to update Firefox in Ubuntu

In this article we would update Firefox. Firefox shipped with Ubuntu. However Firefox shipped with Ubuntu will be older version. Firefox is an op...

How to install Skype in Ubuntu

In this article we would install Skype on Ubuntu. Skype is the most popular communication software. It was developed by Ahti Heinla, Priit Kases...

How to install VLC in Ubuntu

In this article we will install VLC player on Ubuntu 12.04. VLC is a open source project. VLC player can play most multimedia files as well as DV...

How to update Ubuntu 12.04

First thing you should do just after the installation is updating the Ubuntu. Ubuntu 12.04 is the LST version and would be supported until April ...

How to enable root in Ubuntu 12.04

root is the top administrator account in linux. You can do whatever you want to do while you logged in from root account. This causes security ri...

How to install Ubuntu on virtual box

In this tutorial we would install Ubuntu on window. Ubuntu is the most popular Linux. You can install Ubuntu in virtual box to use it with window...

How to install Ubuntu

In this article we are going to install Ubuntu. You can install Ubuntu form any medium like DVD, pen drive, network. It's up to you which medium...

How to make Ubuntu bootable USB

Ubuntu is a most flexible and widely used Linux flavor. In this article I will show you how to make Ubuntu bootable USB disk. From this bootable...

How to change server 2008 computer name

Computer name is randomly generated and assigned during the installation, you can change it in Initial Configuration Tasks (ICT) Wizard. If you hav...

Localize time zone

You can localize time zone during the installation. ICT wizard also have option to update it. You can update these settings any time by following th...

How to assign a static ip address to server 2008

Next step you should complete just after the installation is assigning a static ip address to server. To do this follow this process click on...

Windows Server 2008 Editions

Microsoft has released following editions of Windows Server 2008. Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Editi...

New Features of Windows Server 2008

A number of improvements and additions have been made to Windows Server 2008. In this article we would discuss about those features. Server Mana...

How to install Windows Server 2008 x86 version

A number of improvements and additions have been made to Windows Server 2008. In this article we would discuss about those features. Server Mana...

How to install window server 2008x64 bit enterprise edition

Window server 2008 available for both 32 and 64 bit architecture. With the release of Server 2008 R2 in 2009, Microsoft discontinued the developmen...

How to install window core server 2008

Microsoft release the core edition of Server 2008. Core edition includes minimal roles and services. Core edition stripped down any unnecessary serv...

Difference between editions of server 2008 family

Microsoft releases several additions of Server 2008 family. Each edition have several specific features. In this article we will try to list those f...

Window Server 2003 Editions

Window Server 2003 is the updated version of its previous version. This is reliable, secure, and easier to administer. WINDOW SERVER 2003 SERV...

Sites Replication Domain Controllers Objects Delegation Organizational Units

Active Directory includes a replication feature. Replication ensures that changes to a domain controller are reflected in all domain controller...

Active Directory Services funcation defination feature ads domain tree forest

Active directory is a central component of the Windows platform, Active Directory service provides the means to manage the identities and relatio...

Pre – quest of ADS configuration active directory service

In our last article you learnt about the basic concept of ADS. In this article we will configure the ADS service on server 2003. Pre quest of ...

How to configure ADS Active Directory Service Step by Step Guide

In our earlier article we have finished all necessary pre-quest. In this article we would configure ADS. ADS configuration wizard can be invoke...

How To Verify the Installation of ADS and How to Remove ADS

In our last article we have configured ADS. In this tutorial I will guide you how to check ads installation. ADS installation can be verify fro...

How to add or remove clients from domain network of server 2003

In a domain network a client is computer where actual works are done by users. All clients are controlled by the server. In our previous articl...

How to add clients in domain advance method used in Company Environments Server side Configurations

In our last article we have added client in domain using default administrator account. Administrator account can be used in LAB environment. B...

How to add clients in domain advance method used in company environments client side configurations

This article extends the previous article. We have completed server side configuration. Pre quest of this tutorial Create a user named Vi...

Microsoft Management Console

The MMC is a powerful framework for organizing and consolidating administrative snap-ins. Microsoft Windows Server 2003 administrative tools, ...

How to configure roaming profile, mandatory profile, in server 2003 xp configuration

Profile is the user setting. A profile is associated with a user account and contains information such as customized desktop settings, network ...

DNS Server

Virtually every computer requires a mechanism to resolve name to IP addresses. This requirement arise because IP address consist of four group...

How to add DNS Server

ADS use DNS to locate the network resources. DNS server would automatically be installed during the installation of ADS. During the install...

how to configure DNS domain name system in Server 2003

ADS uses Domain Name System (DNS) to locate resources on a network. Without a reliable DNS infrastructure, domain controllers on your network...

Dhcp Server

Computers on a IP networks need some essentials information before they can communicate with other hosts. This information include an IP address,...

How to install dhcp server

In our previous article you have learnt about the functionality of DHCP Server. Now as you know how DHCP Server works it is time to install it. ...

DHCP Server Configuration options

We have installed DHCP Server in our previous article. You should learn about the options used in DHCP Server before you start configuration. In...

Configure DHCP Server Scope

Before a DHCP server is fully functional on a network, it must be configured with at least one scope and must be activated. A scope is a range, o...

How to authorize DHCP server

In our last article we have configured DHCP Server scope. DHCP Server must be activated and authorized before it can lease IP addresses. However...

DHCP Client Configuration process

DHCP supports Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), which enables computers running Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003 to confi...

How to configure DHCP Client

In our previous article we discuss about various aspect of DCHP clients. Now we would configure DCHP client. Before we start make sure you have c...

DHCP Client Reservation

If a client requires the same IP address at all times, a client reservation can be configured to ensure that it always leases the same IP address...

Sample hardware resume 1

In this article I have Written a desktop support engineer / technical support engineer resume template. With the help of this sample resume you can ea...

Sample hardware resume 2

In this article I have designed a hardware engineer / desktop support engineer / technical support engineer resume template. With the help of this sam...

Sample resume skills for computer hardware and networking professional

The IT Skills or Technical Skills section is something that you may not see in non-IT resumes, but it is almost absolutely necessary in the technica...

Career objectives for resume or Sample resume objectives

This articles provides a collection of sample resume objectives. Career objective is the most important part of resume which describe your moti...

Questions in networking for interview

What is virtual path? Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be grouped togethe...

Networking Questions interview With Answer

BOOTP helps a diskless workstation boot. How does it get a message to the network looking for its IP address and the location of its operating sy...

Inteview Questions for Networking

When were OSI model developed and why its standard called 802.XX and so on? OSI model was developed in February1980 that why these also known as...

Collections of networking interview questions

What is remote desktop? A feature that's allow user to manage computers remotely. On server side My computer ==> properties ==> remote ==&...

Networking Interview Question With Answer

What is difference between packet switch and circuit switch network? To make a baseband network practical for many computers to share, the data ...

Networking questions to ask

What is a subnet mask? Subnet mask is a 4 byte (32 bit) number used to identify the sub-network ID and the host ID from an IP address. All the h...

Networking Basic Interview Questions and answer

How to find what program used as default for opening file .xyz ? In cmd type C:\> assoc .xyz which program will open that .xyz file How to c...

Networking Interview

What are the difference between hub and switch? Hub is a layer 1 device. It will out the signal from all of its port except the one from where i...

Certification

Where could I Take my Exams? You may take any of the CCNA exams at any of the Pearson VUE authorized centers. What is the exam cost?. Curren...

CCNA New Exam Syllabus

The following topics are general guidelines for the content likely to be included on the Cisco Certified Network Associate exam. However, other r...

Limitations of IPv4

The current version of IP (known as version 4 or IPv4) has not changed substantially since Request for Comments (RFC) 791, which was published in...

Builtin Features of IPv6

In our last section we learnt about the limitations of IPv4. Now we will discuss built in feature of IPv6. Very large address space IPv6's larg...

Differences between IPv4 and IPv6

IPv6 solves the Address Depletion Problem With the explosion in the popularity of the Internet has come the introduction of commerce related act...

IPv6 Terms and Concepts

Node Any device that runs an implementation of IPv6. This includes routers and hosts. Router A node that can forward IPv6 packets not explici...

IPv6 address format

Whereas IPv4 addresses use a dotted-decimal format, where each byte ranges from 0 to 255. IPv6 addresses use eight sets of four hexadecimal add...

Special IPv6 Addresses

The following are the special IPv6 addresses: Unspecified address The unspecified address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 or ::) is used only to indicate th...

How to configure IPv6 Address

One option you have is to statically assign a unicast address to a device’s interface using either of these two approaches: Specify all 128...

IPv6 Address Auto configuration Process

Autoconfiguration is an incredibly useful solution because it allows devices on a network to address themselves with a link-local unicast addre...

How to assign IPv6 address in Server 2008

The following are the specific autoconfiguration behaviors of IPv6 in Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista: Computers running Windows Serve...

IPv6 Enabled command line tools

Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista include the following IPv6-enabled command-line tools that are most commonly used for network troubleshooti...

IPv6 ICMP

Like IPv4, the specification for the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) header and extension headers does not provide facilities for reporting er...

IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Protocol

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) Neighbor Discovery (ND) is a set of messages and processes defined in RFC 4861 that determine relationships be...

IPv6 Transition Method and Strategies

One nice feature of moving your network to IPv6 is that you don't have to do it all in one step. Various migration strategies support both IPv4 a...

How to configure Cisco Router with IPv6

In this tutorial I will configure Cisco router with transition method discussed in previous article. Dual Stacking ...

How to configure routing with IPv6 step by step guides

To use IPv6 on your router, you must, at a minimum, enable the protocol and assign IPv6 addresses to your interfaces, like this: Router(config)#...

Basic of Wireless Networking

Wireless Networking Wireless networking is the new face of networking. Wireless networking have been around for many years. Cell phones are also...

Wireless networking Access Modes and security Factors

Two 802.11 access modes can be used in a WLAN: Ad hoc mode Infrastructure mode Ad hoc mode is based on the Independent Basic Service Set (...

Wireless Networking Security and MAC Address Filtering

How an end user client with a WLAN NIC accesses a LAN To allow clients to find the AP easily, the AP periodically broadcasts beacons, announci...

Types of Wireless Networks

A wireless network enables people to communicate and access applications and information without wires. This provides freedom of movement and the...

How to Configure Wireless Network Step by Step guides

We have covered all CCNA exam topics in our wireless networking section. As its new topic in CCNA exam so you have very little chance to get simu...

Download Packet Tracer

This page provides various download options for Packet Tracer network simulator software including Packet Tracer 7.1 for Windows (32bits and64 bits)...

how to recover root password in linux

This article explains how to recover root password in Linux step by step with examples. Best way to gain access on RHEL server without root pass...

how to refuses a local login

This article explains how to deny locally login in Linux. Create a normal user in case you do not have any. Example Questions:- You are the a...

Linux chattr commands

This article explains chattr commands and its attributes in details with examples. chattr attribute is used to stop accidentally deletation of ...

Linux ACL Example

This article explains Linux ACL in detail with examples. ACLs expand the basic read, write, and execute permissions in more categories of users and ...

how to set sticky bit

In our previous articles we have discussed about read write and execute permission for file and directory. Now I will show you some special permissi...

Chmod Example

This article explains how to use chmod commands in detail with examples. In our last article you learnt about permission. Permission can be set...

chmod permissions example linux acl

This article explains chmod commands in detail with examples. chmod command can be use to change different permission configurations. chmod t...

how to secure data with luks

In linux world security is the top priority. Best way to secure the data is encryption. RHEL use LUKS (Linux Unified Key Setup) for encryption....

Useful commands to check file system status

In RHEL6 several commands are available for file system managements. In this article we would discuss only those commands which you may need in...

how switch between runlevel

Each runlevel designates a different system configuration and allows access to a different combination of processes. Runlevels determine how much...

Install Linux via apache http web server step by step guide example and implementation

During the first phase of RHCE exam you are asked to install Linux via nfs or ftp or apache server. you will be provided a Linux boot disk and IP...

Install Linux via ftp or nfs server step by step guide example and implementation

During the first phase of RHCE exam you are asked to install Linux via nfs or ftp or apache server. you will be provided a Linux boot disk and IP...

How to configure sendmail server in Linux

In a company environment, email is an essential component to the work day. Email is used to communicate with both internal employees and external...

How to configure squid server in Linux

Proxy servers operate as an intermediary between a local network and Internet. Requests from local clients for web services can be handled by the...

How to configure dns slave server in Linux

A DNS server, or name server, is used to resolve an IP address to a hostname or vice versa. You can set up four different types of DNS servers: ...

How to configure dns server in Linux

A DNS server, or name server, is used to resolve an IP address to a hostname or vice versa. You can set up four different types of DNS servers: ...

How to configure printer server in Linux

Linux uses the Common UNIX Printing System, also known as CUPS. CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) to allow local printing and prin...

How to configure vnc server in Linux

VNC server is a used to share desktop with remote computer. VNC works on client server architecture. To share desktop you need vnc-server packa...

How to configure samba server in Linux

Most Linux systems are the part of networks that also run Windows systems. Using Linux Samba servers, your Linux and Windows systems can share d...

How to configure web server in Linux

When you view a web page over the Internet, the code to create that page must be retrieved from a server somewhere on the Internet. The server th...

How to configure dhcp server in Linux

DHCP, or Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, allows an administrator to configure network settings for all clients on a central server. The DH...

How to configure nfs server in Linux

NFS, or Network File System, is a server-client protocol for sharing files between computers on a common network. NFS enables you to mount a file...

How to configure NIS Server in Linux

NIS, or Network Information Systems, is a network service that allows authentication and login information to be stored on a centrally located s...

How to configure syslog server in Linux

Sample Exam question:- You are a System administrator. Using Log files very easy to monitor the system. Now there are 40 servers running as Mail...

How to configure FTP Server in Linux

ftp server is used to transfer files between server and clients. All major operating system supports ftp. ftp is the most used protocol over int...

How to configure ssh server in Linux

Telnet and FTP are well-known protocol but they send data in plain text format, which can be captured by someone using another system on the same...

Configure linux server to deny icmp ping request

ICMP protocol is used by ping command to check the connectivity between two computers. By defaults all Linux servers will response on ICMP reques...

How to use Linux as router

In this article I will show you that how can you use Linux as a router. Routers are the devices those are used to connect two different networks....

Linux cron command

The cron system is basically a smart alarm clock. When the alarm sounds, Linux runs the commands of your choice automatically. You can set the al...

Linux access control lists example and implementations

at daemon allows you to run the command of your choice, once, at a specified time in the future. You can set an at job to be run once. The at d...

Linux service configuration tools

Services can be controlled by three programs in linux. chkconfig (command line only) ntsysv (simple text-based application that doesn't requi...

No root login problem and solution Example

In this tutorial we will discuss about some more critical root login related issue. There are several issue those can stop root form login. We wi...

How to Remove root password in Linux

In this article from our series of RHCE exam guide we will learn how to remove root password. Example Question :- You are new System Administra...

grub.conf password reset

The Grand Unified Boo tloader (GRUB) is a multiboot boot loader used for Linux With GRUB, users can select operating systems to run from a menu i...

How to increase virtual terminal in Linux

The /etc/inittab file holds instructions for your system on how to manage terminal devices. A line in the /etc/inittab file has four basic compon...

Linux fstab options

fstab file define the mount points for partition. Before you can use the files in a directory, you need to mount that directory on a partition fo...

How to change owner and group of a file in Linux

In Red Hat Enterprise Linux, all files have file permissions that determine whether a user is allowed to read, write, or execute them. When you i...

How to copy user profile in Linux

From our previous article you have learned Files those are responsible for user and group managements How to create a normal user How to cr...

Create user and group in Linux

From our previous article you have learned Files used for User managements How to create user How to create user without password H...

useradd Linux command

From our last section you have learned System administration related commands. Whether its exam or real world senior first and top most work for ...

How to secure terminal in Linux

In this article from our series of RHCE exam guide we will learn how can we secure local terminal. In this example we will use a normal user crea...

Linux chattr command example and implementations

In this article we will discuss about chattr command. For exam prospective you should be aware about the basic function of chattr command. chat...

ACL Access control list example and implementations

From our previous articles you have learnt how to set, read, write, and execute permissions for the owner of the file, for the group associated w...

Linux chmod command example and implementations

In our last two articles you learnt about permission. Permission can be set by chmod command in two different way symbolic and binary masks. In ...

Linux chmod command sticky bit example and implementations

In our previous article we have discussed about read write and execute permission for file and directory. Now I will show you some special permis...

chmod command

chmod command can be use to change different permission configurations. chmod takes two lists as its arguments: permission changes and filenames...

How to recovery deleted data and partition step by step guide

In our previous article we have installed DATA Recovery software. In this article we would use DATA Recovery software. Caution:- Do not try this ...

How to install DATA Recovery software Step by Step Guide

This step by step guide will help you to recover data from crashed system. Some time we accidentally delete important files. Real disaster comes wh...

How to remove Syskey and Administrator password

In this tutorial we will remove Syskey start up password and reset the administrator password. Syskey is the additional layer of security. An avera...

How to make windows XP live cd step by step guide

In this article we would make a Windows Live CD. With live CD you can easily run XP from CDROM. This is very helpful for troubleshooting. With thi...

How to install windows XP from pen drive step by step guide

In this article we would prepare pen drive as a window XP installation media. Once we prepared this pen drive you could install XP from this. This ...

How to make windows XP bootable disk

In this article we would create a window XP bootable disk from copied files. This is very useful when you have copied files of XP. To keep backup w...

How to make XP unattended installation CD

Standard installation of XP requires several information's from user. To provide this information automatically we have a created an answer file in...

How to create answer file for XP unattended installation

During a standard installation of XP setup requires several information's to be filled from user such as the time zone, network settings, and so on...

How to show windows version on desktop in XP

From our series of XP tips n tricks in this article I will show you How to Customize visual effect on XP How to Optimize Hard disk when idle ...

How to create virtual desktop in XP

In this article we would cover following How to resize images How to open command prompt here How to create four virtual desktop To resize...

How to remove recent history from XP

From our series of XP tips n tricks in this article we would cover following Remove options from start menu, hide workgroup options How to remo...

How to remove shortcut key arrow in XP

From our series of XP tips n tricks in this article we would cover following How to remove shortcut key image How to customize the default colo...

How to set default registry in XP

From our series of XP tips n tricks in this article we we would cover following How to disable autoexec.bat at login How to login without user...

How to customize internet explorer in XP

From our series of XP tips n tricks in this article we would cover following How to set autocorrect backslash to slashes How to change backgro...

How to change mouse setting in XP

From our series of XP tips n tricks in this article we would cover following tricks Change the mouse speed Change the scrolling options to scr...

How to hide drive from my computer in XP

In this article we would cover following tips and tricks of XP How to hide drive from my computer How to show icon on my computer How to chang...

How to remove program from start menu in XP

In this article I would including following tips and tricks for XP How to show desktop icon. How to disable balloon tips Hide name for start m...

How to install power toy ui in XP

Power Toy is a tiny software provided by Microsoft to enhance the performance of XP. You could download it from here. Download Power Toy Tweak UI ...

Examples of computer hardware System Unit Types of Ports Types of Connectors

In this article I would give you a brief overview about system unit, type of port and type of connector. The System Unit The System Unit house...

Computer hardware components Input Devices Output Devices

I have given a brief over view about computer hardware terminology in our last article. Now in this article I would discuss about hardware comp...

Definitions computers hardware basic Coding Schemes Computer Peripherals

In this article we would discuss about coding schemes used in computer, definition of computer. Later we would cover measurement unit used in c...

Basic computer hardware terminology

In this article we would cover basic of computer hardware. Being a system administrator you should familiar with computer hardware terminology....

Computer hardware review and definition

Network administrator must be familiar with basic computer hardware operations. He should have adequate knowledge of computer hardware to perfo...

Comptia N+ Exam Objective

This Compita exam list is obtained from Compita’s official site. We suggest you to review Compita’s official site before taking exam for any ch...

Comptia N+ Exam fees and exam center in india

The Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) is the voice of the world's information technology (IT) industry. Its members are the compa...

Network Security implementation Port Blocking Filtering Authentication Encryption

Port Blocking / Filtering A network layer firewall works as a packet filter by deciding what packets will pass the firewall according to rules d...

Tracert traceroute Ping Arp Netstat Nbtstat NetBIOS Ipconfig winipcfg nslookup

Tracert / traceroute Tracert: Determines the path taken to a destination by sending Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) Echo Request messag...

Network Operating Systems features UNIX Linux Netware

A network operating system (NOS) provides services to clients over a network. Both the client/server and peer-to-peer networking models use netwo...

Wiring Tools Wire Crimper Map Testers Cable Testers Tone Generator firewall proxy

wire crimper A wire crimper is a tool that you use to attach media connectors to the ends of cables. For instance, you use one type of wire crim...

Rj-45 J Rj-11 USB MT-RJ Coaxial BNC LC Local Connector MT-RJ USB BNC connector AUI

RJ-11 (Registered Jack) Standard telephone cable connectors, RJ-11 has 4 wires (and RJ-12 has 6 wires). RJ-11 is the acronym for Registered Jack...

Cable media STP UTP SMF MMF Coaxial cable ThickNet RG-8 ThinNet RG-58

STP (Shielded Twisted Pair) This cable has a conductive braided or foil casing for each pair and theoretically offers very good protection from ...

Dhcp Server

Computers on a IP networks need some essentials information before it can communicate with other hosts. This information include an IP address,...

Function of TCP UDP protocols DNS NAT ICS WINS SNMP NFS SMB AFP ISDN FDDI

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) are used to transmit network data to and from server and client ap...

TCP IP model tcp ip stack MAC OSI IPX/SPX IPX SPX NetBEUI AppleTalk

A MAC address is 48 bits long and is represented as a hexadecimal number. Represented in hex, it is 12 characters in length, where each charact...

Tcp ip udp ftp smtp HTTPs POP3 IMAP4 telnet SSH ICMP ARP RARP NTP SNMP SCP LDAP LPR

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) Transmission Control Protocol uses a reliable delivery system to deliver layer 4 segments to the destinati...

Ip address IPv4 IPv6 public ip private ip APIPA Static Dynamic ip classes

Systems that have interfaces to more than one network require a unique IP address for each network interface. The first part of an Internet add...

Network security protocols CHAP MS-CHAP PAP RADIUS RAS PPP SLIP PPPoE PPTP RDP

Security protocols protect a computer from attacks. To understand how security protocols work, you must first understand what types of attacks ...

Star Topology ring Topology bus Topology Logical Physical mesh Topology

Topologies The first thing to consider about a network is its physical shape, or the design layout, which will be extremely important when yo...

Factors which affect Wireless Network Range Speed Infrared Bluetooth FHSS DSSS OFDM MIMO

Infrared Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than that of visible light, but shorter than that of micr...

Main features of 802.2 Logical Link Control 802.3 Ethernet 802.5 token ring 802.11

In this article we would discuss about media protocols, media standards. Later we would explore how system gets access over media and how topo...

10BaseT 10BaseF 10Base2 5-4-3 rule 10Base5 100BaseFX 100BaseT4 100BaseTX

IEEE shorthand identifiers, such as 10Base5, 10Base2, 10BaseT, and 10BaseF include three pieces of information: The number 10: At the front ...

Types of Networks LAN MAN WAN CN VPN SAN Internet Extranet Intranet

A network is basically all of the components (hardware and software) involved in connecting computers across small and large distances. Networks ...