How to install Ubuntu Linux Step by Step Explained

This tutorial explains how to install Ubuntu Linux in detail with practical example. Learn the Ubuntu installation steps and available options in each step along with their meaning.

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To start installation process, boot system from the Ubuntu installation disk.

First screen of the installation process has the two panes; left pane and right pane. Left pane allows us to localize the language. Right pane allows us install the Ubuntu in hard disk. It also allows us to try the Ubuntu without installation.

To install Ubuntu in hard disk, click the Install Ubuntu option.

install ubuntu option

On the next screen, we have an option to choose whether we want to use the third-party software or not.

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Third-party software is the software that is not available in Ubuntu’s official repositories. If this option is enabled, the installation process automatically downloads and installs the essential third party software from their official repositories. To enhance the existing functionality of Ubuntu, you should enable this option.

To enable this option, select the option “Install third-party software for graphics and Wi-Fi hardware, MP3 and other media” and click the Continue button.

Although it’s not recommended, but if you do not want to use the third-party software, keep this box unchecked and click the Continue button.

install software from third party repository

Now the installation process scans all attached hard disks to find the existing operating system and partitions’ layout. If it finds any existing operating system, it lists that on the next screen along with partitions’ layout. This information helps us to install Ubuntu with the existing operating system.

If it’s a new hard disk or hard disk contains no operating system, it displays the following message.

This computer currently has no detected operating systems. What would you like to do?

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Besides displaying the information about the existing operating system and partitions’ layout, it also provides two options to create the necessary partitions’ layout for Ubuntu.

These two options are the following.

Erase disk and install Ubuntu: - In this option, the installation process automatically creates all necessary partitions. This option has two sub-options: -

  1. Encrypt the new Ubuntu installation for security: - If we select this option, installation data will be encrypted.
  2. Use LVM with the new Ubuntu installation: - If we select this option, to create the partitions, LVM partition scheme will be used.

Something else: - In this option, we have to create all necessary partitions manually.

To understand partition scheme in detail, let’s select the second option and click the Continue button.

create partition

Partition Meta data is stored in the partition table. Before we create partitions, partition table must exist. If partition table does not exist, hard disk will be displayed as the blank disk on the next screen.

To create partition table, select the disk and click the New Partition Table button.

partition scheme

Click the Continue button to confirm the action

partition table

Once partition table is created, we can create necessary partitions. Necessary partitions for Ubuntu installation are the following.

/ Main and compulsory partition of Linux. If no other partition is specified, entire Linux will be installed under this partition.
/boot This partition is used to store booting files.
/home This partition is used to store user data.
swap This partition is used as the part of RAM. It does not contain any user specific data.

To create a partition, use the following steps.

  • Select the free space
  • Click + (Add) button
  • Specify the size of partition
  • Select file system type
  • Select mount point
  • Click OK to save the partition information

Let’s create all necessary partitions one by one starting from the / (root) partition.

creating root partition

Repeat same steps to create the /boot partition.

creating boot partition

Now create the /home partition.

creating home partition

Finally create the swap partition.

creating swap partition

Swap area (/space/partition) is used as a temporary memory. Since it does not store any system or user specific data, it does not require any mount point.

After creating the necessary partition, click the Install Now button.

partition layout

Whatever change we made in disk layout, will not be written into the disk until we confirm the changes. Installation process keeps all change in memory and writes them in disk only after getting confirmation from us.

Click the Continue button to confirm the action.

confirm installation

On the next screen, select your time zone.

select time zone

At the next screen, select your keyboard layout.

select keyboard layout

Linux cannot be accessed without login. On the next screen, we have to create an initial user account.

This initial account is required to access and manage the Ubuntu just after the installation.

Fill the user information and click the Continue button.

creating user account

Now the installation process copies all necessary files from the installation disk to hard disk and installs the Ubuntu with the customized options. Depending on the system resources, it may take 10 to 30 minutes.

installating ubuntu

A system restart is required to apply the new installation.

Once installation is finished, it displays a message to restart the computer.

Remove the installation disk/USB drive and click the Restart Now button.

restart system

After restart, use the initial user account (the account which we created in installation process) to access the Ubuntu.

login user

Once you are logged in, Ubuntu is ready for use.

installation complete

That’s all for this tutorial. If you like this tutorial, please don’t forget to share it with friends through your favorite social site.

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